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Kambojas ruling over Kashmir

There is no other state in India that is shrouded with controversies like that Jammu & Kashmir. From its unison with the Union of India, and also from before it the state has been the center of war and violence which has intensified in they recent years to a great extent. It is situated in the northernmost part oh India within the valley surrounded by the Himalayan mountains. The state of Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, Pakistani administered Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas to the west and the People’s Republic of China to the north and east.

The territory of Jammu and Kashmir, as has already been said, is a hot spot since it is the source of decade old disputes between India and Pakistan and is referred to by Pakistan as Indian-occupied Kashmir. However, the state is as old as the history itself. In the ancient period it was regarded as one of the major centres of Sanskrit scholars. According to Mahabharata evidence, there as the rule of the Kambojas over Kashmir during epic times and it was a Republican system of government under the Kamboj. The capital city of Kashmir (Kamboj) during epic times was Rajapura e.g. Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava.

Jammu and Kashmir is also home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. The main Kashmir valley is 100 km wide and 15,520.3 kmĀ² in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from Ladakh while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the Valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This densely settled and beautiful valley has an average height of 1,850 meters above sea-level but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 5,000 meters.

From the old days the state of Jammu & Kashmir has historically consisted of four political regions. While one of them is the Ladakh towards the east bordering China, the others include Jammu towards the south bordering India and Pakistan, Kashmir Valley towards the east bordering Pakistan and Baltistan areas towards the North bordering China and Pakistan. However, both of Baltistan and a part of Kashmir Valley are under Pakistan control. Again, the Aksai Chin, claimed by India to be a part of Ladakh, is under Chinese control. The rest of Jammu & Kashmir is under Indian control. Pakistan and Indian controlled parts are separated by Line of Control (LOC).
The political system in the state moves according to the core belief of the Constitution of India and thus has a multi-party democratic system of governance participated by several political parties. It should also be remembered that the Constitution of India grants Jammu and Kashmir special autonomous status as a temporary provision through Article 370 that has generated controversies in the rest of India from time to time.

The economy of Jammu and Kashmir is mostly dependent on farming, animal husbandry and tourism. Other than this the whole of Kashmir valley is known for its sericulture, cold water fisheries as well as agricultural produce like apples, pears and many temperate fruits as well as nuts. It should be noted that the wood from Kashmir is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as Kashmir Willow.

The state though possesses a Muslim majority population there is also the presence of large and vibrant communities of Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs. In Jammu, Hindus constitute 67% of the population and Muslims 27% and Sikhs 5%, whereas in Ladakh, Buddhists constitute about 51% of the population, the remaining being Muslims.


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