Cambodia (Kambodia)

Official name (from 1993) Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Preah Reach Ana Pak Kampuchea. Formerly Kampuchea (1975–89) and Khmer Republic (1970–5)

Local name Cambodia

Timezone GMT +7

Area 181 035 km²/69 879 sq mi

population total (2002e) 13 414 000

Status Kingdom

Date of independence 1953

Capital Phnom Penh

Languages Khmer (official), French

Ethnic groups Khmer (93%), Chinese (3%), Cham (2%)

Religions Theravada Buddhist (88%), Muslim (2%)

Physical features Kingdom in SE Asia. Crossed E by the floodplain of Mekong R; Cardamom mountain range 160 km/100 mi across Thailand border, rising to 1813 m/5948 ft at Phnom Aural; Tonlé Sap (Greek Lake) in NW.

Climate Tropical monsoon climate, with a wet season (May-Sep). High temperatures in lowland region throughout the year; average annual temperature 21°C (Jan), 29°C (Jul); average annual rainfall 5000 mm/71 in (SW), 1300 mm/51 in (interior lowlands).

Currency 1 Riel (KHR) = 100 sen

Economy Most of the population employed in subsistence agriculture, rice, and corn; industrial development disrupted by the civil war.

GDP (2002e) $20·42 bn, per capita $1600

Human Development Index (2002) 0·543

History Originally part of Funan Kingdom, then part of the Khmer Empire, 6th-c; in dispute with Vietnamese and Thais from 15th-c; French Protectorate, 1863; formed French Indo-Chinese Union with Laos and Vietnam; 1887; independence, 1953; Prince Sihanouk deposed and Khmer Republic formed in 1970; fighting throughout the country involved troops from N and S Vietnam and the USA; surrender of Phnom Penh to the Khmer Rouge, and country renamed Kampuchea, 1975; attempt to reform economy on cooperative lines by Pol Pot (1975–8) caused the deaths of an estimated 3 million people; further fighting 1977–8; Phnom Penh captured by the Vietnamese, causing Khmer Rouge to flee, 1979; 1981 constitution established a Council of State and a Council of Ministers; name of Cambodia restored, 1989; Vietnamese troops completed withdrawal, 1989; UN peace plan agreed, with ceasefire and return of Sihanouk as Head of State, 1991; Sihanouk crowned King, 1993; further conflict following Khmer Rouge refusal to take part in 1993 elections. Following eleven months of political deadlock, the two main parties agreed to form a coalition government, 2004; abdication of King Sihanouk, Oct 2004, Prince Norodom Sihamoni appointed successor.

Head of State

Monarch – Kingdom of Cambodia (Head of State)
1941–55 Norodom Sihamoni  Interim
Norodom Ranariddh Interim
1993–2004 Norodom Sihanouk II (restored)
Interim Government
Chairman of the Supreme National Council
1991–3 Norodom Sihanouk
State of Kampuchea
1989–91 Heng Samrin
1982–91 Norodom Sihanouk Government in exile
People’s Republic of Kampuchea (1979)
1981–89 Heng Samrin
Democratic Kampuchea
1976–81 Khieu Samphan
1975–6 Norodom Sihanouk
Khmer Republic
1972–5 Lon Nol
1970–2 Cheng Heng Acting
1970–5 Norodom Sihanouk Government in exile

Kingdom of Cambodia – Monarch

1960–70 Norodom Sihanouk
1955–60 Norodom Suramarit
1941–55 Norodom Sihanouk II
1927–41 Monivong
1904–27 Sisovath
1860–1904 Norodom
1841–60 Ang Duong
1834–41 Ang Mey
1796–1834 Ang Chan II
1779–96 Ang Eng
1775–9 Ang Non II
1758–75 Prea Outey II
1755–8 Ang Ton (restored)
1749–55 Chettha V
1747–9 Ang Ton
1738–47 Thommo Reachea (restored)
1722–38 Satha Ang Chei
1703–22 Civil war
1702–03 Thommo Reachea
1701–02 Chettha IV (restored)
1699–1701 Ang Em
1695–9 Chettha IV (restored)
1695 Outey I
1675–95 Chettha IV
1674–5 Obbarac Ang Non
1673–4 Ang Chei
1672–3 Chettha III
1659–72 Batom Reachea
1642–59 Chan Rama Thupdey
1640–2 Ang Non I
1630–40 Ponhea Nu
1628–30 Ponhea To
1618–28 Chettha II
1603–18 Barom Reachea IV
1600–03 Chao Ponhea Nhom
1599–1600 Barom Reachea III
1596–9 Barom Reachea II
1594–6 Reamea Chung Prei
1576–94 Chettha I
1566–76 Barom Reachea I
1516–66 Ang Chan I
1512–16 Nay Kan
1486–1512 Srey Sukonthor
1444–86 Dharmarajadhiraja
1429–44 Sodaiya
1404–29 Narayana Ramadhipati
1389–1404 Paramarajadhiraja
c.1387–89 Dharmasokaraja
c.1377–c.1387 Kambudjadhiraja
c.1371–c.1377 Kalamegha
c.1362–c.1371 Nirvanapada
c.1353–c.1362 Period of instability
Angkor Kings
1327–c.1353 Jayavarmadiparamesvara
1308–27 Indrajayavarman
1295–1308 Indravarman III
1243–95 Jayavarman VIII
c.1219–43 Indravarman II
1166–81 Tribhuvanadityavarman
1160–6 Yasovarman II
1150–60 Dharanindravarman I
1113–50 Suryavarman II
1107–1113 Dharanindravarman I
1080–1107 Jayavarman VI
1066–80 Harshavarman III
1050–66 Udayadityavarman II
1002–50 Suryavarman I
1002 Jayaviravarman
1001–02 Udayadityavarman I
968–1001 Jayavarman V
944–68 Rajendravarman
942–4 Harshavarman II
928–42 Jayavarman IV
900–c.922 Harshavarman I
889–900 Yasovarman I
877–89 Indravarman I
850–77 Jayavarman III
802–50 Jayavarman II
c.922–8 Isanavarman II

Head of Governement (Prime Minister)

1998– Hun Sen
1997–8 Ing Huot (joint)
1993–7 Norodom Ranariddh (joint)
1993–8 Hun Sen (joint)
1991–3 No Prime Minister Interim Government
1982–91 Son Sann Government in exile
1985–91 Hun Sen
1981–5 Chan Si
1979–81 Khieu Samphan
1976–9 Pol Pot
1975–6 Samdech Penn Nouth
1973 In Tam
1973–5 Long Boret
1972 Sisovath Sirik Matak
1972 Son Ngoc Thanh
1972–3 Hang Thun Hak
1970–3 Samdech Penn Nouth Governemtn in exile
1969–72 Lon Nol
1968–9 Samdech Penn Nouth
1967–8 Norodom Sihanouk
1966–7 Lon Nol
1963–6 Norodom Kantol
1961 Samdech Penn Nouth
1961–3 Norodom Sihanouk
1960–1 Pho Proung
1958 Ek Yi Oun
1958 Samdech Penn Nouth Acting
1958 Sim Var
1958–60 Norodom Sihanouk
1957–8 Sim Var
1956 Oum Chheang Sun
1956 Norodom Sihanouk
1956 Khim Tit
1956 Norodom Sihanouk
1956 Sam Yun
1956–7 Norodom Sihanouk
1955–6 Norodom Sihanouk
1954–5 Leng Ngeth
1953 Samdech Penn Nouth
1953–4 Chan Nak
1952–3 As King
1951 Son Ngoc Thanh
1951–2 Huy Kanthoul
1949–51 Prince Monipong
1948–9 Son Ngoc Thanh
1946–8 Prince Monireth
1945–6 Son Ngoc Thanh

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